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  issue 6, year X, 2003


His Excellency,
Ambassador of Austria Carl Deam
In an interview for Europe 2001 magazine
It Is Important for Small and Middle-sized Countries to Unite
   Interviewer: Nadya Stancheva          page 4
   It’s very important for small and middle-sized countries to unite if they consider it necessary - says the Austrian ambassador in Sofia H.E. Carl Deam in an interview for Europe 2001 magazine. “If everyone knows that Bulgaria is a reliable partner, then it will be respected.” There were only pros for Austria from its EU membership, he explains, although the elder people are still a bit reluctant to give up the shilling and accept the euro. Mr. Deam says there are no anti-Bulgarian sentiments in Austria - “The Bulgarian students in Vienna are highly recognized and they are liked in Austria and show great progress,” he says. His advice to the Bulgarian government is to be more active in advertising Bulgaria, to provide support for the tourist offices abroad and to offer good flight services to the country.

POTENTIALS AND RISKS FOR
THE EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY
   Krasimir Nikolov
Secretary General
of the Bulgarian Association for EC Research         page 6

   Creating the position of a European Foreign Minister has some underlying problems, namely in two opposite directions. The new Minister could turn out to be without a European Foreign Ministry. Or he may turn out to have far too many (national) foreign ministries. The above-mentioned administrative bodies at European and national level, where the future European Foreign Office will recruit its members from, have somewhat diverse visions about foreign policy and do not share the same administrative culture. How are the representatives of the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers - the main center of power within the EU - going to work together with their future colleagues from the European Commission who consider themselves the only 'defenders of the common European interest'? Besides, how is teamwork to be achieved between those eurocrats and the diplomats of the foreign ministries of the member-states? If rivalry exists at administrative level, then what could we anticipate from the complex interaction between the European Minister and the national foreign ministers? Moreover, what is to be expected from the interaction of the European Minister with the Heads of States and Governments, who do not miss an occasion to express their opinion on matters concerning the common European foreign policy? Using a very successful simile by one of the leading researchers of EU foreign relations Chris Hill, it may turn out that not only is the European Foreign Minister naked, but he has no wardrobe from which to pick suitable 'common European' clothes

INTERVIEW WITH DR. ERHARD BUSEK
   Interviewer: Radostin Kaloyanov         page 8
   Dr. Erhard Busek, former vice-chancellor and ex-minister of Science and Education, was born on March 25th, 1941 in Vienna. A jurist by education, with a PhD in Law, he has participated actively in public and political life in the Republic of Austria. Between 1972 and 1976 he was Secretary General of the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber, in 1975 and 1976 - Secretary General of the Austrian People's Party; between 1989 and 1994 - Minister of Education and Scientific Research; between 1991 and 1995 - Vice-chancellor of the Republic of Austria and party leader of the United People's Party of Austria; in November 1996 he became coordinator of the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI); in 2000 and 2001 he was commissioner of the Austrian Federal Government on issues concerning the expansion of the European Union.
   Since January 1st, 2002 he has been special coordinator of the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe.
   Among his numerous publications are the books Austria and the Balkans - Communicating with the Gunpowder Keg of Europe (1999), An Open Door to the East (2003), The European Union Going East (2003) and others.
   Doctor Honoris Causa of the universities of Krakow, Bratislava, Brasov and others, awarded with numerous insignia of honour by the states of Poland, Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, Liechtenstein and others.

THE EUROPEAN IDEA AS A HISTORICAL
ANALOGUE
   Prof. Andrey Pantev          page 13
   What is Europe and what are its boundaries - these questions will be the source of anguish and quests for several generations to come. In many respects contemporary Japan, not to mention the USA or Australia, bears much more European spirit than let's say some dull little village in Sicily or the Balkans. Geography is no longer a guarantee for belonging somewhere, as the European ideas of politics and culture have become universal. Therefore Europe is far more than mere geography. What we vaguely call traditional European values born in Spain, Holland, Germany, England and France are seen today as common for all mankind. In many respects some European ideas have been realized outside Europe, in terms of both time and degree. And is it not true that the most fundamental and lasting solder of European identity - Christianity, was begun outside the continent? Contemporary Euro-integration theorists suggest a new political identity that reminds us of the products of mid-nineteenth century political nationalism. They do not call it a European political nation yet, but apparently without its existence any other union would be conditional and would not last. But to what extent is this 'Europeism' a conditional negation of the nationalism that has drawn the contemporary political map after the end of World War I?

THE BUILDERS OF
CONTEMPORARY BULGARIA
IN THE NAMES OF STREETS IN SOFIA
   Krasimira Milcheva
Sashka Zhecheva         page 17

   During the second half of the nineteenth century the works of Konstantin Irechek and Felix Kanitz revived the interest of the European world in the people of Bulgaria, who had been somewhat forgotten at the time though had one had a glorious history. Restored after the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, the Third Bulgarian State urgently needed well-trained people to work in the spheres of administration, culture and economy. To reestablish its state system, Bulgaria turned for help to the rapidly developing European countries, and most of all, to the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, with which it was sharing an old friendship. Thousands of Austro-Hungarians, invited by the state or due to a private decision, came to our country to offer their best for reviving New Bulgaria. Anton Bezenshek, Josef Oberbauer, Ivan Mrkvicka, Yaroslav Veshin and many others cast in their lot with their new home country and its capital. The memory for them has been kept alive by the grateful citizens of Sofia in the names of the city streets.

INTERVIEW WITH NIKOLAUS HARNONCOURT
   Donka Ilinova         page 21
   The Austrian conductor, cellist and violinist Nikolaus Harnoncourt was born on December 6th, 1929 in Berlin. He grew up in Vienna where he received his degree as a violoncellist. In 1953 he founded 'Concentus Musicus' - an ensemble for antique music, whose performances with authentic instruments of the Baroque and Classical period brought him international fame. Interpreting the works of Bach, Mozart, Brahms and Beethoven was of particular success.
   Harnoncourt is a guest-conductor of some of the largest and most famous orchestras, like the Berlin Philharmonic, the Vienna Philharmonic and Vienna Symphony, the London Philharmonic and others.
   He is the winner of many awards, member of the Royal Music Academy of Sweden, Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Edinburgh.

MY VIENNA
   Vladko Murdarov
Awarded with the Cross of Honours for
Art and Science of the Republic of Austria         page 25

   When I was a university student, for me Vienna was not represented merely by the magnificent building of the University on the Ring, or the homely Institute of Slavonic Studies with its rich history, or the National Library with the thousands of volumes, or the noisy halls of residence that had gathered people from Europe, Asia and America. For me Vienna was also the Museum of History of Art where we would go to admire the paintings of Brugel, and the standing Gallery in Staatsoper from where we watched 'The Ring of the Nibelungs' staged by Herbert von Karajan, and the building of the City Hall, glowing festively on Christmas Eve. Vienna was also the little street with Sigmund Freud's house along which we strolled with adolescent curiosity, and the small houses in Grinzing with a bouquet of pine twigs above their doors where they used to serve new white wine, and the crowded cafe 'Havelka' where we would spend whole evenings arguing, and the short 'Wollzeile' street in the city centre which tempted me with its dozens of bookshops. At another period of my life for me Vienna also meant my students' intelligent faces, their innumerable questions asked over a pint of beer or a glass of wine in the cafe of 'Grinstadl', as well as my memories of elderly people I respected for choosing to go on with their studies after retirement and even write a dissertation on something that had interested them throughout their entire lives. For me Vienna is also the city where just during the Bulgarian late Renaissance more than 400 books of Bulgarian men of letters were published. Ever since I started translating Austrian literature eight years ago, I see Vienna in yet another way. I see it through the eyes of Arthur Schnitzler and Robert Muzil, through the eyes of Thomas Bernhard and Peter Turini, Georg Tabori, Wolfgang Bauer and Werner Schwab.

GRAZ - A CITY OF
UNOSTENTATIOUS LURE
   Erika Lazarova         page 29
   Critics say it lacks dynamism and even call it a 'province town'. Calm and almost unreachable, Graz reigns among the natural verdure, claim its admirers for whom the 'Green Steiermark' (province of Styria) is a synonym of the existing bond with nature, of the vitality coming from the proximity with the South that has determined the strong Italian influence on Renaissance architecture. In fact, Graz is the second largest city in Austria and it is considered its industrial centre, but it is perhaps the most 'Austrian city'. Its calm coziness can be felt best in The Old Town with its countless shops and restaurants. But modern Graz, one of the European capitals of Culture for 2003, has something to show to its visitors too. Along with the clock tower, its unchangeable symbol, Graz has new emblematic signs - the island on the Mur River and the so-called Kulturhaus.

THE INSANITY OF
THE HUMAN MIND
   Ivelina Nikolova         page 35
   "The fool hath said in his heart, 'There is no God.'" (Psalm 14:1) Man invented a future without God yet with absolute trust in himself. The human mind increased hundreds of times its potential for communication and death; it confounded the notions of time, freedom and immortality that underlie his life. Having felt he had no room for action, he saw a way out in the open field of empiricism, but the Revelation of the century had sealed the lock with the seal of Eternity. Man made up gods with whom to compete, whom to explain and kill. Displeased with himself, he transferred his dissatisfaction onto God. In his helplessness man got conceited and his haughtiness grew into a rebellion against God. The ontological meaning of this rebellion was genetically hidden in the revolt against his self.

BULGARIA AND ITS RENOWNED OPERA SINGERS
   Hristo Nonov
Marin Bonchev      page 38

   It was not until recently that Bulgarian opera singers went out to sing on stages around the world but this lack of longevity and tradition did not prevent them from taking their due place under the Opera sun. World opera stages have attracted them irresistibly and they have gone on stage, giving out their great talent and energy in a battle to win the hearts of their audiences. One of these stages is the Viennese Staatsoper. It has placed at their disposal its theatrical temples, its composers, directors and singers. To this generosity the Bulgarians have responded with their voices and hearts. Having witnessed the achievements of musical Vienna, they have been enriched by it and have carried it in their souls to give it to opera lovers around the globe.
   At a press conference in Sofia Johan Holender, director of The Viennese State Opera, said, 'It is impossible to imagine the Viennese State Opera stage without the Bulgarian singers.'
   Are these words of politeness and courtesy, or are they the truth?
   Opera art admirers have long known the answer.

SALZBURG - A CITY OF FESTIVALS
   Boyka Petkova      page 40
   The article gives a brief overview of cultural, musical and theatrical events in Salzburg since 1920, when the festivals have begun, and it traces out the development of these initiatives and the way they have been enriched with new forms. Of course the centre of attention falls on the operas and concerts of Karajan together with world famous opera stars and instrumentalists.
   The fantastic Christmas and traditional local Fests are of particular interest to foreigners but the avant-garde 'Aspects' are not to be overlooked either because of the productions of young and modern authors and the new forms of art.
   And all that is enriched by the Mozart spirit of the romantic, fantastic and highly humane character of music.

VIENNA - A FAIRY TALE BALL
   Boryana Yosifova-Lenski       42
   For the unique glory of Vienna as a symbol of preserved cultural traditions and romantic spirit, the world-renowned Viennese balls have contributed to this image, along with the great number of theatres, museums, opera and concert halls. The ball tradition in the Austrian capital was born a few centuries ago - during the monarchy of the Habsburg dynasty. The Viennese balls gained their true splendour under the rule of Franz Josef I and thanks to the fabulous waltz melodies of the musical Strauss family - both father and son.
   To this day the balls in Vienna are part of the carnival season and from November to March they number about 400. All of them take place in ancient castles, concert halls or elegant hotels. The Opera ball and the Philharmonic ball are among the most elite ones. Apart from them the different professions also organize their balls - so there are balls of lawyers, medics, officers, industrialists, teachers... There are even balls of hunters and firefighters.

THE VIENNESE BALLS IN SOFIA
   Maria Neykova, Tsvetanka Elenkova       page 44
   The Viennese balls in Sofia were first held in 1996. What is characteristic of them is that they are charity balls and the collected money goes to institutions for children without parents, to hospitals or for the support of cultural institutions and projects.
   When organizing a ball, special attention is being paid to the elements of the traditional Viennese ball, including suitable attire. The patronage is always assumed by the Austrian ambassador and a Bulgarian host that he invites. The next ball will take place on 21st February 2004 in Kempinski Hotel Zografski.

ARTISTS MAKE KITES
   Dochka Kisyova-Gogova      page 45
   The Messages symposium for making and showing plastic art kites took place in September 17th-24th this year in Sofia in Obelya 1 Quarter, in the open space between the quarters of Nadezhda and Obelya (close to the last metro station). Organizers of this event were the Ministry of Culture, the National Centre of museums, galleries and fine arts, and the municipalities of Sofia and Vrubnitza. It was owing to their financial support that artist Lyuben Kostov's magnificent idea saw the light of day and the project 'Messages' with Dochka Kissyova as curator was realized.
   Some of the most avant-garde and unconventional Bulgarian artists took part in the project - Dimitar Grozdanov, Lyuben Kostov, Svilen Stefanov, Monika Popova and Penka Mincheva. The exhibition in Sredetz Hall showed the kites made by the artists at the symposium, as well as a documentary and a multimedia CD made by Lyuben Kostov. The interactive CD contains images of the kites, biographical and data and artistic portraits for all participants, photographs and video files from the symposium, and some texts.

'Bulgarski Text'
   Jana Petrova      page 48
   A discussion in 'Translation Land' with the team of 'Bulgarski Text' Ltd, the people who translate Discovery Channel in Bulgarian. Are they discoverers themselves? Have they ever translated a definition of happiness and what is happiness to them? 'A supreme manifestation of curiosity', 'A film does not give you answers, only thousands of questions.' What do these people dream at night? A subtitle they have been pondering on all day? How does one become part of this team and what is it like to master the special equipment? It is as if you are about to launch a rocket. How does the translation of a popular science film begin? By researching the topic. Do translators have strict deadlines? What do they consider a well-done job? Translation should be so smooth and natural that when the film is over, the viewer should not remember having read any subtitles. What are the difficulties of their job? They have to decide what part of the original text to keep in the two rows of the subtitle and the few seconds available. 'My heart aches for every word I have to leave out'. But in this way the girls who work here become the ideal women - they speak briefly and to the point. And a little bit more about their sense of humour - 'When you translate about Nepal, it is like being sent on a mission to Nepal.' Where do they dream to travel? As in "Diceman" - you roll the dice and thus choose your next destination.
   A 48-minute meeting - the duration of a 'long' film in Bulgarski Text.

'EUROPE 2001' MAGAZINE
AT HASKOVO JAZZ' 2003:
JAZZ, POETRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY -
CLASSICS AND EXTRAVAGANCE
IN THE GENRE
         page 49
   At this year's International jazz fest Haskovo Jazz' 2003, the biggest musical event in this part of Bulgaria, 14 Bulgarian participants (Milcho Leviev, Edi Demirjian, Project X, Plamen Petrov Trio, etc.) and 4 from abroad (from Denmark, Portugal, Poland and Hungary) presented their music in 5 successive evenings. The festival opened with a photograph exhibition called 'Twelve Views of Bulgaria' and a Literary Evening as part of the regular rubrics of 'Europe 2001' magazine - 'Photo Atelier' and 'Litart'. 12 poets took part in the Literary Evening, among them: Peter Curman, Jean-Claude Villain, Panos Stathoyannis, Dragan Danilov, Dimitris Allos, Jonathan Dunne. Their works were presented by actor Vesselin Mezekliev. Some of the authors have already been presented on the pages of the magazine and others are yet to be published. In this issue of 'Europe 2001' in the rubric 'Litart' we introduce you to these authors from the Literary Evening at Haskovo Jazz' 2003 who have not been presented yet in the magazine.

'LITART' PRESENTS - INGEBORG BACHMANN
         page 51
   Three decades ago, on October 17th, 1972, in a Rome hospital, Ingeborg Bachmann who had been born in the Austrian town of Klagenfurt died at the age of 47. A blaze of glory had accompanied Ingeborg Bachmann (1926-1973) during her lifetime. She attained fame with Prolonged Time, her first collection of poems, published in 1953. The glory of a star followed her throughout her entire personal and professional life until the appearance of her novel Malina - the first book of her unfinished trilogy, Types of Death. The Embassy of the Republic of Austria in Sofia, the Italian Cultural Institute and the Bulgarian National Radio (BNR) with the kind support of Raiffeisen Bank, Bulgaria organized a gala concert in First studio of BNR on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the great Austrian poet and writer's death.

'PHOTO ATELIER' PRESENTS -
LYUBEN YANKOV
         page 53
   Born on September 9th, 1940 in Svishtov.
   In 1970 he found political refuge in the USA. There he graduated at a photography institute where he specialized in Composition. He does advertisement and art photography. He works for MoMA (The New York Museum of Modern Art), New York Times magazine, the advertising agencies Grey, BBDO Worldwide, Saatchi & Saatchi and for art galleries in Soho.
   Since 2000 he has divided his time between the United States and Bulgaria.
   He is Distinguished Member of the first Bulgarian community center, 'Elenka and Kiril D. Avramovi' in Svishtov, Special Member of the New York Public Library and Distinguished Member of the International Society of Poets.

THE BULGARIAN COMMUNITY IN AUSTRIA:
A TASTE OF NOSTALGIA
   Rumen Stoichkov,
Bulgarian National Radio      page 58

   Writing about the Bulgarian community in Austria is not an easy task. Namely because it hasn't got the statute of a national minority as it is the case in Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro, etc. There is no official statistics about the number of Bulgarians scattered around this country who have come for different reasons at different periods of time. There were Bulgarians here at the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bulgarians were present here during the last century too - they were mainly gardeners looking for a living, or university students who had come here to improve their knowledge in a field of science. In contemporary Austria the number of Bulgarian students is large too, but the figures I heard vary between two and ten thousand people. And because it is so dispersed, this Bulgarian community has no traditions typical for other communities and aiming to preserve customs, folklore, rites etc. But it is in its own way looking to find itself in a cosmopolitan society, and in its own way doomed to isolation in contacts within the community. But it is also original - in the profusion of talents and traits of our national psychology.

THE HABSBURG EMPIRE
   Violeta Velikova-Kosheleva       page 61
   One of the greatest families in world history - the Habsburg dynasty - has left a durable trace in the state-system and culture of the old continent. Its presence in the European civilization has continued for a long period of 9 centuries (from the 10th to the 19th century). The two-headed eagle is the main heraldic symbol in the coat of arms of the Habsburg Empire dynasty and it has been kept as a state emblem of Austria to this day. The large compound emblem of the Austrian Empire includes the emblems of all countries and territories that have once been included within its borders, and in one of the variants the Bulgarian national emblem is present.

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