|| issue 3, year XV, 2008
H. E. MR. EL GHAILANI DLIMI AMBASSADOR OF MOROCCO TO BULGARIA BEFORE "EUROPE 2001" MAGAZINE
Interview by Valentin Kostov
SIMEON SAKSKOBURGGOTSKI: THE GOOD RELATIONS CONTINUE TODAY
Interview by Valentin Kostov
THE KINGDOM OF MOROCCO Ц A STATISTIC PORTRAIT
SINCE ANCIENT TIMES UNTIL TODAY
Morocco has existed since 800-600 BC. Then Ethiopians settled in Morocco. The ones who lived in the North leaded a settled way of life; those from the South were riders and were dedicated to hunting. The Atlantes gave their name to the Atlantic Ocean.
In 682 the Arabian leader and founder of Keruan Ц the first Ottoman city in Tunis, Okba Ibnu Nafi attacked the shore of the Atlantic. In 791 Morocco was founded as a state.
In the beginning of its history Morocco was consecutively governed by six dynasties and their heirs. They managed to enlarge the territories, to contribute to the development and the welfare of the country.
The Idris Dynasty was the first to reign. They built the city of Fes, which was later pronounced for the capital of Morocco. Since 1921 Morocco has been governed by kings.
THE THRONE FEST
Every year on July 30th the people of Morocco celebrates the anniversary of the ascension of His Majesty King Mohamed VI. This year the ninth anniversary is celebrated.
Apart from having a symbolic meaning, the Throne Fest is a way to confirm the symbiosis between the King and his people, to straighten the connection between them and to open a new page in the history, which they will write together, sharing their common ambitions: prosperity and freedom.
The Moroccans think that the creation of one country is not enough for its nation to become great. Due to the ambitions preserved through history and the solidarity this becomes a reality for the Moroccans. All of the Moroccan people have taken part in the wealth and diversity of the nation.
The Kingdom of Morocco takes an important place not only in the history of colonization but in the process of decolonization, as well. This place is very different from the one in the scheme used in other countries.
44 years after the fragmentation of Morocco's territory, Morocco is slowly beginning to recover the integrity of its territory by negotiations and international resolutions. .
In 1981 Morocco suggested that a referendum was organized, which was expected to put the end of the regional conflicts. Without waiting for this referendum the African Unity Organization accepted the membership of "Republic of Sahara" - a country formed in the Algerian territory in the city of Tinduf. Morocco turned to the UN with an application to deal with this problem.
HUMAN RIGHTS IN MOROCCAN SAHARA
Numbers of normative and institutional forms connected with the better consideration of the human rights have been taken in Morocco. For this purpose constitutional, institutional and law changes have been carried, which will contribute to the recognition of the principles of the law in the whole Kingdom.
The practice of the human rights and freedom in the south Moroccan provinces is not different from that in the other provinces in the Kingdom. As equal to the others, the inhabitants in Sahara have the same human rights as their compatriots.
The law guarantees connected with the practice of those rights and freedom are valid for the whole national territory. When these rules are broken everybody has access to the justice institutions
CONTEMPORARY MOROCCAN DIPLOMACY
On April 26th 1956 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of independent Morocco was established. The Ministry deals with the liberation of the country, with the recovery of the national sovereignty and its participation in international structures. The Moroccan diplomacy has been built within the frames of the national affair politics.
Morocco has managed to keep its safety and stability, to get back the occupied zones of its territory. The diplomacy of today's Morocco mobilizes its efforts to turn into credit the new international image of modern and democratic Morocco, united around the King.
MOROCCO AND THE UN
Partnership kept more than half a century to the advantage of peace, security and popularization of the world ideals
The Kingdom of Morocco has been a member of the UN since November 12th 1956. Nevertheless, the loyalty to the principles and the points of the Charter preceded this date, and since 1956 it has become a major quantity in the foreign politics of Morocco. This membership is the proof for the solidarity of Morocco to the principles that the UN has, which try to achieve the confirmation of freedom and peace in the world. Morocco has taken part in two peace operations under the flag of the UN.
Morocco denounces terrorism and all of its forms, causes, reasons and acts and declares its resolution to fight all terrorist groups, which use religion as an excuse for achieving their political aims.
MOROCCO AND BULGARIA: BILATERAL RELATIONSHIP
The diplomatic relationship between Morocco and Bulgaria dates from the accreditation of the first Moroccan Ambassador in Sofia (with residence in Moscow) on September 1st 1961. The Embassy of Bulgaria in Rabat dates from 1962.
On April 10th 1986 the first Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco was appointed with residence in Sofia.
The bilateral relationships are managed by law frame, which includes issues such as politics, economy, culture, law, youth and sports, agriculture, craft, health care and information.
THE ECONOMY IF MOROCCO IN XXI CENTURY
Confirming the real logistic competitive power of the national economy is among the main priorities included in the program of the Government of Morocco for the period 2008-2012. Action like this has a serious significance because of its influence over the country being preferred as a place for investments and increasing the competitive power in the home and foreign trade.
The policy of developing major transport projects by doubling the volume of the investments for the next five years continues, too. Considering that, it is clear that the political will is to give a real push of the logistic service by using "new strategy, founded on the strong and effective partnership in the private sector".
MOROCCO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION
Compared with the South-Mediterranean countries the trade between Morocco and the European Union is marked with permanent development, which leaded to the increase of the Moroccan part in the common trade in the European Union in 2000.
The relationships between Morocco and the European Union are motivated by double dynamics. On one hand, there is an ambition to optimize the available. Including into the European politics of good neighbourly relationships can be used as a powerful mechanism for the country until it reaches the desired level.
On the other hand, Morocco and the European Union have fixed an action plan, which foresees giving a technical help until Morocco manages with the reforms. It is common to the help given to the new countries - members in the process of transposition the law of the Community. The action plan of Morocco marks the improvement in the set of Morocco in accordance to the European standards.
INVESTMENT IN MOROCCO
The Kingdom develops a strategy for attracting foreign investments based on some main rules. The attractiveness of Morocco as an investment spot enlarges together with the improvement of the business conditions made by the government. The attractiveness of Morocco is mainly connected with the increase of the competitive power of the Moroccan economy.
Morocco has chosen the path of opening and conducts economical and social politics on which the modernization of the country is based. The country is both a stimulator and a regulator of the national economy. The private initiative takes also part as an engine in the economical growth. Morocco follows the politics of economical integration not only on the economical and the national level but on the world level, too
The Albanian language belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is the latest written language to ever bear witness in Europe. It contains two main dialects Ц Gegian and Toscian, spoken by the two main tribes in Albania. Over the centuries there were differences between them in the specific characteristics of the language, livelihood, material and spiritual culture and in the religion.
The Gegians from the north are connected with the Catholic Church, while the Toscins from the south were Orthodox and felt the powerful influence of Byzantium and in some periods the one of Bulgaria and Serbia, too.
The first book written and published in Albanian is a translation of a catholic liturgy from the priest Geon Buzuku, also known as Meshari.
Although this first monument of the Old-Albanian literature is a translation, it has big linguistic and mass cultural meaning.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROVINCES IN SOUTH MOROCCO
The provinces in the south part of the Kingdom of Morocco are about 416 474 km2, their population is 817 929. The nine provinces in South Morocco include the regions Gelim-Es-Semara, Laaiun-Bujdur-Sakia-El Hamra and Ued Ed Dahab-Laguara.
The traditions and the customs in the provinces of Sahara are soaked with the rich and various culture of "Hasani". Some of their customs are connected with the life circle; others are connected with the religious holidays.
The literature of "Hasani", as an inseparable part from the culture of the South, is interested not only in poems and proverbs, but also in history, fairy-tails and riddles.
Dancing is closely connected with the traditions in the south provinces of the Kingdom. The region Gelim-Es-Semara is best known for the dance "Ghedra", the dance of the Arabic tribes.
FES: 1200 YEARS OF THE LIFE OF THE KINGDOM
The oldest of the emperors' cities is Fes was founded in 789 A.C. by Idris I, heir of the prophet Mohamed. His son Sultan Idris II decided in 809 to move the residence of the first Moroccan dynasty of the Idris there and thus Fes became the first Islam city in Morocco.
According to the legend the name of the city comes from the discovering of a pick (in Arabic "fa`s") on the place of the first inhabitants. It is one of the four emperors' cities together with Marrakech, Meknes and Rabat.
Despite the dynasty wars and the periods when it was not a capital, the city has never stopped growing and becoming more and more beautiful. Today Fes is definitely the most authentic city in North Africa.
THE EMPERORS' CITIES
Art contributes to the acquaintance of the history of the Moroccan cultural heritage. The art and the culture of Morocco have been formed by the alternation of rivalry and conflicts in the old towns (medinas), the markets, the citadels and the mosques of the country and within the heavy doors of the palaces. These processes have gone within the fortresses of Rabat Ц the capital of the Kingdom, Meknes - the "Mirror of time", Fess Ц "the old spiritual capital" and Marrakech Ц the city-oasis. These cities offer unbelievable sights and make impression with their architecture until today. UNESCO have pronounced Meknes for a city of "world heritage" and thus have brought it a great prosperity.
The exceptionally rich architectural heritage of Morocco has been build from different dynasties.
During the Almoravidi reign, while the Spanish influence was in its culmination, the prayer hall in the "Karauin" Mosque in Fes was built in SpanishЦMoor style, as well as the famous "Kutubia" in Marrakech.
Most of the mosques and the majority of the medreses were built during the reign of the Merinidi dynasty.
The most famous mosque named after King Hassan II in Casablanca has been built on the seashore of the Atlantic Ocean by a French architect. Its graceful mosaics and ornaments of enamelled roof-tiles show that the Moroccan crafts traditions are still alive.
As Moroccans are Muslim the influence of the Islam can be recognized in the whole Moroccan architecture.
Due to the incitement and the approach of His Majesty Mohamed VI today Morocco has new consecutively and structural politics of tourism, which include specific acts from the government, the administration, the local authorities and professionals working in the sphere of tourism.
Having considerable natural resources and various cultural heritage Morocco encourages the tourist branch by voluntarism strategy for development, which can give a new push in the stability of the whole development.
After the speech of His Majesty Mohamed VI made in Marrakech on January 10th 2001 during the National session dedicated to tourism, Morocco officially engaged with the development of new tourist politics called "Vision 2010".
Morocco is undoubtedly a country with a lot of advantages and a big potential, which helps it turn into an extremely valuable tourist destination.
THE CULTURE OF MOROCCO
The geographic position of Morocco has turned it into a multicultural country because of the Arabic, African and Berberian populations. In Morocco observing the local customs is an expression of elementary respect to the host country.
There are two main tendencies in the Moroccan clothing Ц city clothes and peasant costume.
The wedding in Morocco is a symbol of the eternity in the matrimonial community and the basis of the family. It is celebrated with customs taken from the ancient traditions.
The Moroccans love the small pleasures of life and one of them is gastronomy The Moroccan kitchen is a real treasure and the very healthy peppermint tea is a God's law.
PAINTING OF COLOURS AND CONTRASTS
Along with the establishment of the Protectorate in Morocco the easel painting arose. It was also called "the colonial school". The paintings depicted scenes from the public life during the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century.
The contemporary Moroccan painting is a reflex of the Pre-Islamic, African, Berber, Islamic, and later the European painting. The past of contemporary Moroccan painting is marked by two major events Ц the islamisation of Morocco in 19th century and its colonization in 1912 from France, and later from Spain.
By the endless diversity of productions contemporary Moroccan creative authors, no matter profesionalists or self-educated, represent almost all of the streams in contemporary art.
ANCIENT AND CONTEMPORARY
As a private industry the Moroccan cinema did not have a successful start as Algerian or Tunisian, where after the proclamation of independence, the countries supported the establishment of national cinematography. Even so, mainly due to the French funding the Moroccan filmmakers are today able to accomplish their first successful movies with unknown to the other part of Magreba ability of expression.
In Sofia from 22nd to 28th February 2008 "The Week of the Moroccan Cinema" was held. It was an initiative of the Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco in cooperation with the National Bulgarian Movie Association, within the boundaries of the "Program for cooperation" for the next three years signed in Rabat, in January 2008.
THE AFRICAN PIONEER
Moroccans are fans of almost all kinds of sports, especially of those where they have good sportsmen.
The Moroccan love to football does not have to be proved. It is enough to walk along the streets and the beaches to be concerned in this. The black pearl Larbi Ben Barek plays in France and surprises the world, making it for the first time talk about Moroccan football. Athletics as an Olympic sport is the most powerful national sport in Morocco; this is the national Olympic sport. The discipline brought to Morocco great number of medals.
PHOTOATELIER PRESENTS: PEOPLE AND PLACES
LITERATURE WRITTEN IN THREE LANGUAGES
The Moroccan literature includes works in Arabic, French and Berber language. There are also works written in Spanish, although they are too few in comparison with the others written in Arabic, French and Berber.
Since its beginning the Arabic literature of Morocco has been marked by the process of decolonization. One of its first representatives Alal al-Fasi (1907-1974) is a former president of the "Istiklial" party.
Other Moroccan authors have chosen to write in French, as Achmed Sefriui Ц author of fairytales and novels. He unites in his works the popular culture of the Arabic Ц Berber foundations.
THE COUNTRY OF WONDERS AND MILLENNIAL TRADITIONS
The folk art of the Kingdom of Morocco is incredibly rich and it is internationally acknowledged. Traditions, crafts and arts of Morocco were created by the ancestors and have been carefully preserved over the centuries. Moroccans are constantly paying special attention to the preservation and the enrichment of this heritage and the blossoming of the creative talent.
The musicians called "chiouks" are keepers of the tradition, they enliven the peasant celebrations. The most famous dance is Laalaui.
The first known inhabitants of Morocco Ц the berbers, laid the foundations of the craftsmanship, and mostly the one connected with the processing of iron and silver and the production of different clay tools.
And last but not least, the caftan Ц an oriental cloth worn by the sultan's wives, has fascinated the West world for centuries.
CUISINE ART FOR 2000 YEARS
Cooking and eating food are the best way to get to know the history and the culture of a country. In this case the Moroccan cuisine is the same as the country itself Ц warm, generous, colorful, aromatic and easy to be absorbed.
There are a lot of dishes in the Moroccan cuisine. There are also lots of recipes which are typical for the different regions. Each region has its own peppermint tea. The Moroccan cuisine takes the second place for creativity after the French cuisine.
The originality and the wealth of the Moroccan cuisine are influenced by the Arabic and the Berber cuisine. The influence of the Turkish, African, Jewish and South-Asian cuisines can also be recognized.
THE POETIC WORLD OF VALKO GAIDAROV
By Dochka Kisiyova-Gogova
LOVE TO BRONZE