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търсене
  issue 1, year XVIII, 2011

H.E. TOVE SKARSTEIN, AMBASSADOR OF THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY TO THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA
Interview by Valentin Kostov

Page 4

NORWAY IN DATES
By the Embassy of Norway in Sofia

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The article presents Norway through the most significant dates in its history - since 9000 BC until today.

BILATERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AND THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY
By Europe 2001, based on files of the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Page 9

Bulgaria and Norway established diplomatic relations on 20 August 1906. Amazingly, two so distant states have had relation since the Middle Ages. Information about this fact can be found only in Norwegian sources such as kings' biographies, chronologies, and myths, while Bulgarian sources have not preserved information about it.
Two Norwegian officers Sophus Christensen and Gunnar Flud took part in the Russo-Turkish war (1877-1878) which resulted in Bulgaria being liberated.
Nowadays the two countries have agreements in the spheres of trade, science, education, tourism, culture, sports and many more. Since Bulgaria became a member state of EU in 2007, many Bulgarian projects have benefited from the financial funding mechanisms of Norway aimed at diminishing the differences between the old and the new member states.

NORWAY'S ECONOMY
By Antonia Gospodinova

Page 10

Today Norway is among the richest states in the world - on GDP per capita base it is second after Luxembourg, and since 1999 it has been always the leading country as regards the UNDP Human Development Index. But until the beginning, or even the middle of XX century Norway was one of the poorest agrarian countries along with Portugal and Ireland.
Norway is rich in energy resources - nearly 95 percent of the electricity is produced by hydroelectric facilities. A new chapter in the economic history of the country was the discovery of oil and natural gas fields in the North Sea in the 60's and shortly after that Norway became one of the richest states in the world.
Although Norway voted twice negatively on EU membership referendums, it has economic relations with the European Union based on the European Economic Area rules.

NORWAY'S FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR BULGARIA
By the Embassy of Norway in Sofia

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THE NORWEGIAN LANGUAGE
By Ivan Tenev

Page 17

Like the other Scandinavian languages the Norwegian is a separately developed representative of the German group of the Indo-European Language Family. Genealogically Danish and Swedish are the closest languages to Norwegian. There are two official forms of written Norwegian - Bokmal (literally "book language") and Nynorsk (literally "new Norwegian"). The Norwegian Language Council is responsible for regulating the two forms. The preservation of the various dialects of the Norwegian language is an active state policy.
In Bulgaria Norwegian is taught in the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" and tuition in Norwegian in the Secondary Education system will be introduced soon.

EDUCATION AND SOCIAL ASSISTANCE SYSTEM
By Evgenia Tetimova

Page 19

Norway is among the European countries having the biggest education funds. One of the main objectives of Norwegian politics is reaching high standards and quality in this area. The basic idea is "Education for everyone", i.e. equality regarding place of residence, gender, social and cultural background, and integration of disabled people.
The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Agency was established in 2006 in order to ensure job opportunities for as many people as possible, to create the opportunity for meaningful activity for those with special needs and the opportunity for secure income in accordance with the rights enshrined in legislation. Norway spends the highest sums in Europe for care for elderly people per capita of the population.

THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
By Ivan Tenev

Page 22

Every year on 10 December the world watches with great interest the Nobel Peace Prize announcement ceremony in the Norwegian capital Oslo. Although Alfred Nobel was Swedish, he decided that the Peace Prize should be awarded by Norway because at that time the Norwegian Parliament was the first legislative organ in the world to commit to world peace.
According to the Alfred Nobel's will the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by the five-member Nobel Committee, assisted by the Norwegian Nobel Institute. The Nobel Committee is independent and awards the prize regardless of the nationality of the nominees.
In 2010 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo.

THE NANSEN-AMUNDSEN YEAR
By Antonia Gospodinova

Page 24

In 2011 two anniversaries with great significance for Norway coincide. It is 150 years since the birth of Fridtjof Nansen and 100 years since Roald Amundsen, accompanied by four of his men, arrived as the first at the South Pole.
As a unifying framework for this jubilee year the Norwegian Government decided to establish the Nansen-Amundsen Year 2011. The objective of the celebration is to spread knowledge and arouse enthusiasm about the lives and work of Nansen and Amundsen. This year will highlight the roles these men played as nation-builders and polar heroes, their contributions to science and literature, as well as Nansen's humanitarian endeavours and his role as a diplomat and politician.
In Bulgaria the year will be marked by a post stamp dedicated to Nansen and a seminar on environment and polar researches.

NORTH TO THE HEART
By Denitsa Kamenova

Page 27

Once in Old Norwegian Norway was called "North Way" or "Way to the North". The etimology of the names is never accidental. Behind it the soul and heart of the name are hidden. If the traveler coming from the South forgets about his prejudices about the "cold" North people, he will have the chance to feel Norway with his heart.

NORWAY'S CITIES
By Antonia Gospodinova

Page 32

We present you a short review of five Norwegian cities - the capital Oslo, Trondheim, Stavanger, Tromso and Bergen. Oslo with population of about 750 000 with the surrounding towns is the administrative, economical and cultural center of the country. Trondheim is the third biggest city with the biggest cathedral in Northern Europe , called Nidarosdomen. In Nidarosdomen traditionally all the Norwegian kings are crowned. Stavanger has developed recently - mostly after the discovering of oil, as since then the population became four times more. Tromso, which is situated far beyond the Arctic Circle, is often called the North Paris because of its rich cultural and urban life. Bergen is called "the city that has its feet planted in the sea, with its head in the clouds and its heart in the right place".

INVESTMENT IN THE FUTURE
By Lyuben Pavlov

Page 40

20 000 decares is the total area in Norway declared parks and water sports zones, including sports fishing. It equals 2857 football grounds. It is a common practice in Norway to project natural sites in places freed from military status. These zones are cleaned and given back to the nature in perfect ecological condition.

KIRSTI GROTMOL: SLOWLY ARRIVES

Page 42

The presented works of the Norwegian artist Kirsti Grotmol belong to a series of strong, colourful, figurative paintings and a video based on the theme of childhood. Beneath a seemingly calm surface, something disquieting is hinting at us. When she worked with these paintings the words "Slowly Arrives" always came to her mind. This refers to the creative process of painting, a process requiring in addition to technical skill, both time and meditation.
Therefore the only painting of a grown up person - a woman - is also titled "Slowly Arrives".

NORWEGIAN STAVE CHURCHES
By the Embassy of Norway in Sofia

Page 45

The majority of the famous Norwegian stave wooden churches were created in the period 1150-1350. Although they were more than 1000 in the Middle Ages, only 28 survived until today.
The most famous among them is the Urnes Stave Church, build about 1130, which is used on special occasions until today. The Urnes Stave Church was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

NORWEGIAN TRADITIONS: INDEPENDENCE AND ORIGINALITY
By Maria Angelova

Page 46

Along with the flag the national costume is among the most important Norwegian national symbols since the end of XVII century when people started paying attention to what was considered distinctively and truly Norwegian. Today the national costume is worn on ceremonial and festive occasions, public as well as private, in both cities and villages. It has acted as a uniting factor for Norwegians no matter what the name of the enemy is - urbanization, market economy or EU.

CULINARY TEMPTATIONS FROM THE NORTH
By Maria Angelova

Page 48

Some of the largest fishing fields are situated along Norway's coast and even today Norwegians eat fish at least three times a week. Fish has always had a special place in the Norwegian cuisine. Norwegians have high requirements for the fish - near the coast it must go almost straight from the sea to the dish. The traditional Norwegian cuisine also includes game, dairy products, cereals, berries.
One of the most typical Norwegian liquors is the "aquavit" - strong spiced alcohol dominated by caraway. Although in the Vikings' times the mead was very widespread, nowadays it is produced only by a few enthusiasts at home.

NORWAY: THE HOMELAND OF SKI
By Antonia Gospodinova

Page 50

It is not exaggerated to say that Norwegians are a sports nation - more than 1,85 million people (or nearly 40 percent of the nation) train sport and are members of the Norwegian Sports Federation, while almost 80 percent practice the so called "friluftsliv", or "life in the open air", including open-air activities such as cycling, skiing, trekking, etc.
Norwegians are proud to call themselves "inventors" of modern skiing, which has been well known as a means of moving in wintertime since ancient times.

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES FROM NORWAY

Page 53

OLE BULL
HENRIK IBSEN
EDVARD GRIEG
EDVARD MUNCH
GUSTAV VIGELAND
THOR HEYERDAHL

LITART PRESENTS
CONTEMPORARY NORWEGIAN LITERATURE
By Vera Gancheva

Page 61

PHOTOATELIER PRESENTS
DAG ALVENG

Page 57

ATELIER PRESENTS
BISERA VALEVA: CONVERSATION WITH AN ANGEL
By Dochka Kisyova-Gogova

Page 66

KATYA LAZAROVA: OVERCOME VANITY
By Dochka Kisyova-Gogova

Page 68
Translated by Maria Angelova
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